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Functional Requirements of Hive on Tez Phase I

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12 March 2014


Summary

  • Article Source: Hive on Tez
  • Author: Gunther Hagleitner

Scope

The rest of this document describes the first phase of Hive/Tez integration. The goals are:

  • Bring Tez concepts and primitives into Hive, make them available to all Hive developers
  • Take advantage of TEZ through MRR (Multiple reduce-stage jobs)
  • Take advantage of TEZ through MPJ (multi-parent shuffle joins)

Limiting the integration to the fairly simple MRR/MPJ pattern will require minimal changes to the planner and execution framework while speeding up a wide variety of queries. At the same time it will allow us to build a solid foundation for future improvements.

Functional requirements of phase I

  • Hive continues to work as is on clusters that do not have TEZ
    • MR revisions 20, 20S, 23 continue to work unchanged
  • Hive can optionally submit MR jobs to TEZ without any additional improvements
    • Hive can treat TEZ like just another hadoop 23 instance
  • Hive can optionally detect chains of MR jobs and optimize them to a single DAG of the form MR* and submit it to TEZ
  • Hive can optionally detect when a join has multiple parent tasks and combine them into a single DAG of a tree shape.
  • Hive will display the MRR optimization in explain plans
  • Hive will give appropriate feedback to the user about progress and completion status of the query when running MRR queries
  • The user will be able to get statistics and diagnostic information as before (counters, logs, debug info on the console)
  • Hive has unit tests to cover all new functionality

The following things are out of scope for the first phase.

  • Local tasks will still run as MR only
  • Only Map and Reduce Tez tasks with SimpleEdges will be used (i.e.: no new tasks, new input/output/processors, no new edge types)
  • No multi-output task optimizations will be introduced

One new configuration variable will be introduced.

  • hive.optimize.tez
    hive.execution.engine (changed in HIVE-6103)
    • True
      tez: Submit native TEZ dags, optimized for MRR/MPJ
    • False
      mr (default): Submit single map, single reduce plans

Note: It is possible to execute an MR plan against TEZ. In order to do so, one simply has to change the following variable (assuming tez is installed on the cluster): mapreduce.framework.name = yarn-tez

Example

Here’s a TPC-DS query and plans with and without tez optimizations enabled.

The query (rewritten for hive).

select
  i_item_desc
  ,i_category
  ,i_class
  ,i_current_price
  ,i_item_id
  ,itemrevenue
  ,itemrevenue*100/sum(itemrevenue) over
    (partition by i_class) as revenueratio
from
  (select
     i_item_desc
     ,i_category
     ,i_class
     ,i_current_price
     ,i_item_id
     ,sum(ws_ext_sales_price) as itemrevenue
   from
     web_sales
     join item on (web_sales.ws_item_sk = item.i_item_sk)
     join date_dim on (web_sales.ws_sold_date_sk = date_dim.d_date_sk)
   where
     i_category in ('1', '2', '3')
     and year(d_date) = 2001 and month(d_date) = 10
   group by
     i_item_id
     ,i_item_desc
     ,i_category
     ,i_class
     ,i_current_price) tmp
order by
  i_category
  ,i_class
  ,i_item_id
  ,i_item_desc
  ,revenueratio;

Plan with TEZ

Stage 0:
Local Work: Generate hash table for date dim
Stage 1:
Map: SMB join item + web_sales, mapjoin date_dim + web_sales, map-side group by/aggregate
Reduce 1:
Reduce side group by/aggregate, shuffle for windowing
Reduce 2:
Compute windowing function, shuffle for order by
Reduce 3:
Order by, write to HDFS

Plan without TEZ

Local Work: Generate hash table for date dim

Stage 1:
Map: SMB join item + web_sales, mapjoin date_dim + web_sales, map-side group by/aggregate
Reduce: Reduce side group by/aggregate, write to HDFS

Stage 2:
Map: Read tmp file, shuffle for windowing
Reduce: Compute windowing function, write to HDFS

Stage 3:
Map: Read tmp file, shuffle for order by
Reduce: Order by, write to HDFS

References

[1] Gunther Hagleitner, Hive on Tez, Apache Hive Design Documentation, Jan 31, 2014.


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